Implantox™ is a new method of surface modification of advanced polymers, graphite and carbon-based composites, based on high-dose ion implantation and special oxidative post-treatment. This patented technology was originally developed to protect polymers from atomic oxygen erosion in space. It enhances the erosion and oxidation resistance of polymer-based materials together with substantial improvements in mechanical, electrical, and optical properties. A key advantage of Implantox™ is its ability to produce a thin, stable, graded, chemically bonded, self-healing layer, which assures high surface performance of the treated materials with little or no change in the bulk material properties. Based on its ability to tailor specific surface properties and the variety of unique new surface structures developed on polymers, the innovative and versatile Implantox™ process can be useful not only for space, but also for many terrestrial applications.